Policy note on the interlinkages of Climate Change, Gender and Nutrition in Nigeria

Increasing temperature, erratic rainfall, and other extreme events, such as floods and droughts, pose severe threats to development in Nigeria. Climate change will have significant adverse impacts on crop production and livelihoods, making the country’s poor and disadvantaged people even more vulnerable. It is imperative that the impact of relevant climate science on agricultural production be considered, together with important cross-cutting issues that influence agricultural growth, poverty alleviation, and climate resilience—especially gender and nutrition—if the goals of Feed the Future and the Global Food Security Strategy are to be achieved. This policy note summarizes assessments of these interlinkages in the Nigerian context under GCAN.

Climate change and variability: What are the risks for nutrition, diets, and food systems?

By Jessica Fanzo, Rebecca McLaren, Claire Davis, and Jowel Choufani

The paper uses a food systems approach to analyze the bidirectional relationships between climate change and food and nutrition along the entire food value chain. It then identifies adaptation and mitigation interventions for each step of the food value chain to move toward a more climate-smart, nutrition-sensitive food system. The study focuses on poor rural farmers, a population especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change on nutrition, although we recognize that there are other vulnerable populations, including urban poor and rural populations working outside of agriculture. Although this report does not explicitly exclude overweight and obesity, it focuses primarily on undernutrition because this nutritional status is currently more prevalent than overnutrition among our target population.

Climate-Based Information for USAID Missions: Future Projections vs. Historical Data

By Timothy S. Thomas

Most scientists studying the impact of climate change on agriculture use climate models that project out to 2050 or beyond – some even going to 2100. Even those focusing more short-term rarely study anything earlier than 2030 – the models just have too little change in that time period for them to produce anything of interest. These climate studies can be of significant help to USAID missions when working with host governments in developing longer-range investment plans in the agricultural and environmental sectors, and can also be of help in assessing climate risk in activities that are meant to have impact for multiple decades.

Yet many climate risk assessments for USAID activities need to assess climate impacts for just a few years into the future, for example, just until the early 2020s. For those assessments, typical climate models and studies are not helpful. In such cases, missions would be better served by looking at climate trends from gridded weather data available from a number of sources.


Charting gender issues in agricultural development research under climate change

By Elizabeth Bryan
Agricultural development policies and interventions that ignore gender dynamics miss opportunities to maximize benefits, including increasing resilience to climate change and variability. As more policy-makers and development practitioners acknowledge the importance of addressing gender in their work, they can draw on a growing body of research that highlights key entry points for more effectively integrating gender.

The challenge of our lifetime: How to ensure nutrition for everyone under climate change

By Claire Davis and Jessica Fanzo
The connections between climate change, the global food system, and nutrition are woefully under-acknowledged. Yet the agriculture-food system is particularly vulnerable to climate change. For many regions, especially in the global South, it will be more and more difficult to produce enough nutritious, safe food for everyone in the future. This relationship is complex: climate change threatens our ability to feed a growing planet, but the food system also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs).

A new IFPRI discussion paper, “Climate Change and Variability: What are the Risks for Nutrition, Diets, and Food Systems?”, examines these connections in order to provide an overview of the existing research landscape. The paper uses a food systems approach as it analyzes the bidirectional relationship between food and climate along every step of the food value chain, from a farmer’s seed supply to a consumer having a meal.

A new path to policy: Colombia’s participatory climate leadership

By Alex De Pinto

President Donald Trump’s announcement that the United States will withdraw from the 2015 Paris agreement on climate change, has cast the accord’s ultimate effectiveness into doubt. Nevertheless, the deal has pushed countries to devise innovative methods for limiting their own carbon emissions. An assessment of IFPRI’s contribution to shaping Colombia’s path to meet its Paris targets provides useful lessons on incorporating research into policy-making.

How to ensure nutrition for everyone under climate change and variability

By Jessica Fanzo, Rebecca McLaren, Claire Davis, and Jowel Choufani

The intersection of climate change, food security, and nutrition is critical given that the growing adverse impacts of climate change threaten food security and nutrition outcomes, especially for the most vulnerable in the global South. Climate is a potential driver of nutritional status, but dietary choices can affect both nutrition and climate. A better understanding of the pathways linking climate change and nutrition is key to developing effective interventions to ensure that the world’s population has access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. Undernutrition can be exacerbated by the effects of climate change at all stages of the food value chain. In addition, disease is affected by climate and can, in turn, increase the demand
for nutrients, while reducing nutrient absorption.


Heat stress could be a problem for livestock living outdoors under climate change

By Ricky Robertson It began with an innocent enquiry: do we have relative humidity data, under climate change for possible future situations, that could be used to think about a direct effect on animal productivity? Currently, in our economic modeling, the cattle, hogs, chickens, etc., are only indirectly affected by changes in feed/fodder prices when those are affected by climate change. But, we are not capturing any direct effect from hot animals. We would like to end up with global maps of some index that can tell us something about the stress that animals would experience under typical conditions at each place on the map. The problem, of course, is that the climate data we normally use for crop modeling do not include relative humidity. That is not quite right: some of the raw data do, but not in the data we have cleaned up and arranged for using in the crop models. In order to try to keep things internally consistent, we would like to build up a rough approximation based on what we do have.

Heat Dome to Do Approximately $2 Billion in Damage to U.S. Corn

By Timothy S. Thomas Research Fellow, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. tim.thomas@cgiar.org It's so hot, even the corn is sweating!1   Can temperatures this high be good for corn? It turns out that the answer is "no". I know this because last week I completed a study of the effects of temperature on U.S. corn. My goal was not only to be able to estimate the effects of climate change on corn yields in the future, but also to understand the best way to apply temperature data to the analysis.  One of the things I did was to follow the lead of other researchers and convert daily maximum and minimum temperatures to essentially hourly temperatures to be able to see the effect of an hour at each 1-degree interval on yields.

IFPRI BLOG: Global trends plus local decisions equals a more food-secure world by 2050

By Emil Caillaux Achieving food security is one of the essential components of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which were adopted in September of last year. While only a few goals specifically mention forestry and other land-based sectors, all 17 depend on healthy and sustainable landscapes for their achievement. Over the past two years, the Global Landscapes Forum (GLF) has evolved into the world’s leading platform for discussing land-use issues. In Paris this past December, the Forum brought together approximately 3,200 stakeholders from across sectors, including forestry, agriculture, water, energy, law and finance. At GLF in Paris, IFPRI staff hosted a discussion forum on the challenges faced by the agricultural sector due to climate change, and the available options in regional and global policies that could lead to healthy growth and stability. Read more at IFPRI's blog.